Determinants Dynamics of Pests and Diseases

The incidence of pests and diseases in rice caused by several factors such as growing season, plant stadia, way of cultivation, natural enemies, act of control, and cropping patterns.

The growing season for example, drought, pests and diseases of rice were generally arise based on the level of severity is the rat, followed by stem borers, and walang sangit. Therefore, measures focused on pest control mice.

Related stadia plant, the fallow period, stem borer larvae are inside singgang and sometimes singgang tungro virus infected, and various diseases that disebab-kan by bacteria. The straw can also be present in sklerotia of several fungal diseases. Mice can be in the middle of other plants or hiding in irrigation dike. On land that is wet, snails can also be found. All pests and diseases during fallow could be a source of pests and diseases in the next planting.

Cultivation of rice plants in an effort to increase productivity also affect the presence of pests and diseases. Tillage, weeding and singgang, balanced fertilization, spacing, irrigation, and maintenance of fish can reduce the attack some pests and diseases of rice.

Intermittent irrigation in addition to improving crop yields also reduces disease of rice. But rice cultivation can also have the opposite effect of the double, ie on the one hand increase yields, on the other hand stimulate the development of pests and diseases.

In the rice planting a lot of useful organisms that can suppress pest populations and disease pathogens. Various types of spiders are very useful in a variety of insect pests prey. In addition parasitoid serves suppress the increase in the population of insect pests.

Anagrus brown planthopper egg parasitoid spp. and Oligosita spp. function pressing explosion naturally brown planthopper. Also in the field are antagonistic bacteria that can suppress fungal leaf sheath blight disease. Many entomopathogenic unconsciously come to control insect pests, and can be bred to biologically control.

Control over one type of pest may cause population of origin is not important. Ganjur explosion in the North Coast Jatiluhur in 1970 allegedly because of the incessant aerial spraying of pesticides since 1968.

Some not only broad-spectrum insecticides (broad spectrum) but also trigger the development of the population (resurgence). This happens in the brown planthopper, thus giving birth Inpress No. 3 th, 1986, regarding the prohibition of 57 types of insecticides. Adoption of resistant varieties is the most secure way to control the environment. However, if the resistant varieties are grown continuously in broad areas which would lead to changes in racial pathogen biotypes of pests or disease.

Bibit Sawo from 168 Seed plant &  Bibit Durian Surya forestry

 

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